Present participle

In English, the present participle of a verb has several functions. It is used with compound tenses such as the present progressive and past progressive, and it can also be used as a noun. In this role it is called a gerund.

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The present participle is formed by adding -ing to the base form of a verb (infinitive without to).

base
form
+ ing =  present
 participle
discover discovering
debate debating
watch watching
ski skiing

For verbs ending with the letter e, eliminate the e before adding ing.

base
form
  present
participle
joke joking
assume assuming
infiltrate infiltrating
categorize categorizing

If a verb is composed of one syllable which ends with (one vowel + consonant), double the final consonant before adding -ing.

base
form
  present
participle
hit hitting
rub rubbing
plan planning
blog blogging

When the verb has more than one syllable and the final syllable is stressed, the final consonant is doubled before adding -ing.

base
form
  present
participle
  incorrect
unwrap unwrapping unwraping
compel compelling compeling
begin beginning begining
forget forgetting forgeting

When the stress is not on the final syllable, the consonant is not doubled.

base
form
  present
participle
  incorrect
listen listening listenning
orbit orbiting orbitting
follow following followwing
consider considering considerring

Related lessons:

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