Present perfect

The present perfect shows continuity between a relationship or an action that began in the past and continues into the present. It is formed with the simple present of HAVE plus the past participle.

Present progressive

The present progressive, also called the present continuous, is formed with the verb BE conjugated in the simple present followed by a present participle.

Present tense

In English, the present tense does not refer to only one verb form. In fact, there are four forms that together comprise the present tense.

Progressive aspect

English has four "progressive" verb forms, each of which is an "aspect" of the two English tenses.

Subject pronouns

The subject of a sentence refers to the person or thing that performs the action of a verb. A subject pronoun is often used to replace this person or thing in subsequent sentences to avoid repetition.

Tense and aspect

"Tense" refers to the time period in which the verb of a sentence places an action. "Aspect" refers to the duration of an event within that tense.

Verb BE

BE is the most important verb in the English language. It is used as a main verb and as an auxiliary verb, and it is also used in the passive voice.

Verb DO

The verb DO plays an enormous role in the English language. It is the most important verb after BE.